Atoms and matter
Atoms are microscopic particles that makeup everything around us. Molecules are formed when atoms are grouped together. Particles of matter are so little that even a super strong microscope can’t see them. Through our sense of smell, we can detect these particles. Let’s put this to the test by looking into these balloons.
Smelly Balloons – Smell the smells that are concealed inside the balloons.
• Each colorful balloon contains a unique extract (pine, smoke, strawberry, lemon, vanilla, garlic). The components contained in each balloon may be identified using our sense of smell.
• Atoms join together to create molecules, which are the building blocks of matter. We can’t see these particles, but we can sense a few of them! Aromatic molecules are so little that they can pass through the membrane of a balloon.
There are about 100 fundamental compounds known as elements. The basic components of chemistry are elements. Gold, oxygen, iron, and carbon are examples of elements. There is just one type of atom in each element – and learn more from an IB chemistry tutor online!
Chemists classify chemicals into categories. Chemicals can be sorted or classified in a variety of ways. Some substances have previously been classified as solid, liquid, or gas based on their state of matter. We’ll now classify things based on their pH, determining whether they’re bases, acids, or neutral.
Investigate a pH meter.
Use a vegetable marker to test acid-base using red cabbage paper!
• The hue of red cabbage juice-painted paper is a faint blue. When it gets into touch with various substances, it changes its color.
• A natural indication is red cabbage. In the influence of acids and bases, it changes color. In the existence of an acid, it turns pink, red, or purple. In the existence of a neutral substance, it turns blue. In the existence of a base, it becomes green or yellow – and chemistry is fun with an IB chemistry tutor!
Acids, bases, and neutral chemicals are all possible. Bases and Acids have distinguishing characteristics, so if we understand enough about a material, we can probably tell if it’s a base or an acid.
Investigate acids and bases.
Acids and Bases in the House — Use a pH marker to locate acids and bases throughout the house.
• Different substances change the hue of the universal indicator. The pH scale is used by scientists to determine the relative potency of acids and bases. Using a pH indicator, we can determine if a substance is basic, acidic, or neutral.
• Acids, bases, and neutral chemicals (including common home goods) can all be classified as acids, bases, or neutral. Bases-Acids have distinct characteristics.
Reaction in chemistry
Chemists investigate what substances are comprised and also how they interact with one another. Chemical reactions, or changes, are the focus of a lot of chemistry. The distinction between a chemical and a physical change is critical to comprehend.
Do you recall how we created root beer floats? We developed a combination of atmospheric co2 and flavored water when we added dry ice to our flavored water. The ice-cream assisted in dissolving the liquid and gas that caused the root beer to bubble up. This action is proof of a physical transformation in which various chemicals were combined together yet the end result was the same (carbon dioxide and flavored water). They didn’t make anything totally new, and we’ll be able to separate them later.
A chemical change differs from a physical transformation in that it leads to the formation of completely new material. When the bonding between two atoms, molecules, or ions is broken and reorganized to generate new compounds, chemical changes (or reactions) occur. We’ll be doing some culinary activities today that will result in chemical change!
Investigate chemical reaction
Baggie Reactions – Using simple chemical reactions, puff up sandwich baggies.
• Oxygen is produced by yeast and hydrogen peroxide. Carbon dioxide is produced by baking soda and vinegar.
• A chemical interaction between a liquid and a solid produces a new material, a gas, in both these examples.
To make gas, you can use yeast or baking soda. We watched and listened to the bubbles, felt the change in temperature, and saw and felt the baggies blow up. Cooking relies heavily on chemical processes that produce gases. Because chemical reactions form gas bubbles when they bake, cakes, bread, and many other baked items are fluffy and soft. We’re going to try our hand at making yeast bread. Make chemistry easier for you with help of an IB online chemistry tutor in India!
Baking Bread – Make fresh bread while learning about yeast’s molecular activities!
• You may notice small holes where air pockets originated inside the dough if you look attentively at the texture of the bread.
• A leavening agent is something like yeast. To make bread dough rise, leavening chemicals produce a gas that isolates and pushes apart proteins.
• Yeast is a bacterium that produces carbon dioxide through a chemical process using simple carbohydrates.